Thursday, December 17, 2015

Final chapter of Will's second journal. Go to greensblueandgray.com to learn how you can get a PDF of Will's two journals.

Chap 11    One-Legged Brigade

Jan. 1st, 1863
General Hospital Jackson, Tennessee
     Another New Year I must spend in the army, but somewhat different from the way I spent last New Year. Last I spent merrily in St. Louis enjoying good health and plenty to eat.   This day I enjoy neither. But on the contrary, I am suffering intense pain caused by the wound received at the Battle of Mattemora [Metamora] Oct. 5th, 1862. We are on half rations and

a very poor quality at that; caused by being cut off from the point of supplies.
     On that day, I enjoyed the society of comrades. Today I am compelled to lay [sic] in a loathsome hospital; a place that I detest above all others on earth. I have been in the service of my country nineteen months. During all that time, I never was sent to a hospital; only when I was wounded and then there was no alternative but to go.
     This is very pleasant day. The sun shines brightly. Notwithstanding the beauties of the day, I enjoy it not as a New Year’s Day. Instead of mirth I am surrounded by sick and wounded soldiers, many the very picture of despair. How long I am to remain in this hospital is unknown to me. One thing sure, I would not stay one hour were I not compelled to.
     The surgeon in charge says he has orders to keep me here until I am furnished with an artificial leg, which I hope will come soon. My wound is entirely healed over. Nevertheless the pain is very severe. From the way it pains me today I fear it will break open again. It seems as though it would never get well. Sometimes I think I never can enjoy life again. What a misfortune to lose a limb.
     There are 35 wounded men in this ward, 22 of those are one-legged men. Two of those are very delicate cases. One whose leg is taken off at the hip joint is low.


     The other is an old man, a Prussian by birth. Was a soldier in the rebel army in Germany; was afterwards compelled to leave the Kingdom.[1] Came to America where he again volunteered on the side of liberty. Got his leg shot off at Iuka;[2] came here. His leg got about well; then took cold. Is now very low. I have no idea that he ever will get well. The other amputations are doing well.
     When I look back upon the past year, and the manner in which I spent it, I can but hope that I may never have to spend another one in the same way. I hope ere another year passes away that this bloody war will come to an end. I hope I may be able to spend the coming year with more profit to myself, also to others. Although I am crippled for life, I hope I may be able to be of some service to my country.
     Trusting then, that the Giver of all good will watch over and guide me through all vicissitudes of life, I commend myself to his care.

Friday, Jan. 2nd, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson, Tennessee
     I had a pretty serious night last. My wound pained a great deal, so much so that I could not sleep until near morning when it broke open again, after that it was some easier.
     I have not been off my cot much today. I see no pleasure in going out as there is no place to go. Nothing of interest transpired today.
     The sky is clouded; the wind is high, threatening a storm. Madam Rumor says that as soon as the R.R. is opened, we will be sent to St. Louis. I hope so.

[65]

Jan. 3rd, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson
     The wind was very high last night, quite a hard rain this morning.
     Five hundred and five Rebel prisoners were brought in this A.M.; were taken at the Battle of Lexington fought on the 1st Jan., 1863,[3] also a number of horses and seven pieces of artillery.
     The prisoners are guarded a short distance from the hospital. This is rather a gloomy day; can get no mail, no news of any kind. My wound is quite painful today. Uncle Anderson (as we call him) is quite poorly.
     Provisions are getting very scarce; are on quarter rations. I never was compelled to go hungry for the want of food until the present time.                                        
W.C.Newlon

Sabbath Jan 4th 1863
General Hospital, Jackson, Tennessee
     The rain fell in torrents last night, and the wind with great fury. But this morning the sun rose in splendor, casting his brilliant light over this land of Rebeldom. This is a beautiful Sabbath morning. I only wish that I were where I could enjoy its privileges. This I cannot do so I must be content in my position as loathsome as it may appear.
     I slept pretty well last night, my wound not paining me so much as the night before. Had but little to eat this morn for breakfast; could eat as much more just now if I could get it.



Battle of Lexington

     I have just returned from the barracks where I found the 39th Iowa. They had just returned from the battlefield of Lexington where they sustained quite a loss in killed and wounded. But as generally has been the case with Iowa troops, they saw their antagonist flee before their deadly fire. Captain [perhaps Edward] Brown of Co. K was seriously wounded in the abdomen.
[66]

     In going to see the 39th, I had occasion to pass through the town, thereby giving me an opportunity for the first time of seeing that holy city. The place presents rather a desolate appearance. Nothing of interest could be seen, except the Negroes who were dressed to destination, promenading the streets like Kings and Princes. A few citizens could be seen, mostly ladies; these were in small groups, apparently conversing on some very private affair.
     I returned to the Hospital at 3 P.M. As I passed the dead house, I glanced in and saw that the remains of two poor soldiers lay ready for internment. Upon entering my tent, I found that my very scanty supper was ready; the keenness of my appetite gave me an excuse to dispatch it in little less than no time.
WCNewlon 3rd. Iowa

Monday, Jan. 5th, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson, Tennessee
     This day three months ago we fought the brilliant and victorious Battle of Mattemora on the Hatchie River, a day long to be remembered by the writer, for in that glorious battle, my most serious wound was inflicted and, which today gives me much pain and, which no doubt will stop my wild career for a time.
     Last night the wounded from the Battle of Lexington were brought in. These are mostly new troops; they think it pretty tuff to be shot. By the time they have seen the service that I have they will get used to it.
     This is a beautiful day. The sun shining brightly, clear and warm; appears more like a day in autumn than one in winter.                                   W.C. Newlon, Esq[4]

[67]

Tuesday, Jan. 6th, 1863
General Hospital, No. 1, Jackson
     The remainder of the wounded from the Battle of Lexington came in last night. Some of them are dangerously wounded. I recognized a number of acquaintances from the 39th Iowa among them.
     I spent this P.M. writing letters to friends for them. The 39th Iowa left for Corinth this P.M.[5]

Moans and Groans

Wednesday, Jan. 7th, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson, Tennessee
     Slept but little last night; suffered much pain from my wound. I have been very busy today visiting the wounded and writing letters for acquaintances to their friends. I went downtown and paid a visit to Captain Elliot,[6] who is at the hotel sick; is doing well at present. Had a very pleasant time, conversing about matters and things generally.

Thursday, Jan.8th, 1863
General Hospital, No 1, Jackson
I had a pretty serious night last night; my wounds gave me much pain. How I longed for morn.
This is a very disagreeable morn; a little snow is falling. I presume it will turn into rain before night. I received eight letters last night; I answered six of them this P.M.
     One man, who was wounded in the brain, died in this ward last night. He had been asleep for 24 hours and could not be awaked from his last earthly slumber until death carried his soul to the spirit land. Poor fellow, he is now at rest where he will be no more aroused by the clanking of firearms.
WCNewlon



Friday, Jan. 9th, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson
The moans and groans of the late-wounded in this ward were heartrending last night. They kept me awake most all night by their cries. However this morning their cries are heard no more forever, for six of them were carried this morning to the dead house, where their bodies lay ready for internment. My wound did not give me so much pain last night as common.
The morning is hazy and dull. Today’s papers give an account of the Battle of Mattemora, although great slaughter on both sides. This P.M. very pleasant.

Saturday, Jan. 10th, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson
I slept pretty well last night. About eight P.M., two old comrades, Corporal Jones and Eden Bandel of my company,[7] who were prisoners of war from the Battle of Shiloh, were on their way to the regiment.
     They have no desire to be taken through the same routine again soon. Much rain and loud thunder last night, such curious weather, it rains every twenty-four hours. One man died last night.
     Uncle Anderson died this day at 12 midnight; he has been lingering for a time between life and death.[8] Body and soul separated without a single groan escaping his lips. He died a soldier.

Sabbath, Jan. 11th, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson
     This is as fine a day as in May. How clear the sky is. How bright the sun shines. Nothing new at this place today. I wish I could be where I could enjoy this beautiful day.
WCNewlon

A Confounded Hard Fall
[69]

Monday, Jan. 12th, 1863
General Hospital, No. 1, Jackson, Tennessee
     This day is to be recorded as a day of events with me. I was crossing the railroad this morn when one of my crutches slipped giving me a confounded hard fall,[9] first striking my stump on the hard ground, then falling with the weight of my body upon it, bruising and cutting it terribly. Well, for this little piece of activity, I will be compelled to keep close to my cot for a while longer.
     Not much news and nothing of importance happening here. The weather is very beautiful, fine as May.

Tuesday, Jan. 13th, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson
     The results of tearing up the railroad yesterday morning was sadly felt last night and today. I have almost been sick ere since with pain. I wrote three letters today.
     The troops are in line of battle. The commander of the post anticipates an attack.
     The weather still continues to be pleasant.

Saturday, 17th, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson
The week just past has been the most disagreeable one of the winter. The snow fell hearty on the 12th to the depth of 6 inches, something very uncommon for this county. On the evening of the 14th, it commenced raining and has been raining ever since, cold and disagreeable.
I am confined to my cot. My leg is not getting much better.


Jan. 24th, 1863
Hospital, Jackson, Tennessee
     Another week has closed and I find myself in the same position I was in one week ago. I cannot [tell], although I am any better off than I was this day week. No very great material change in things here since last noted in my diary. We have had very disagreeable weather. During the week last, rain most all the time, such a climate as this I do not like. When winter comes, I like winter and summer, I want summer, and not summer in winter.
     Agreed, many deaths I have counted during the past week, some days as high as six and seven.
     We are getting a little more to eat than we did last week. And if the Rebels will let the R.R. alone, we will not have to starve again.
     I am not able to get out of bed yet, but am feeling better at last. The wounded, all except two or three cases, are doing pretty well. The prospects for going home are null yet. I hope the time will come soon.

Jan. 31st, 1863
Hospital Jackson, Tennessee
     About the same routine as last week, nothing new whatever. We have had very miserable weather most of the time, rain and nothing but rain. A great many deaths have taken place since I last wrote.
     It appears to be the fate of the poor soldier to die and be buried unceremoniously. We have signed the payrolls and have been expecting some pay but as yet got none.
     I am yet unable to get off my cot. I spent the week mostly writing. I am lonesome today.                           WCNewlon


Smallpox

February 1st, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson
     This is Sabbath, the 13th day of the last winter, a day long to be remembered by me and a good many others in this ward. One of our comrades was taken with the Smallpox and was carried out to live or die. It will be bad if we take the same disease after suffering so long from our wounds. Well, we are soldiers and must meet a soldier’s fate. Had we been usable, as we deserved, we would not have been here, but would have been to our homes long ago.
     Two thirds of the winter months have passed, and if the one to come will be a pleasant and warm one we will have nothing to complain of, although we have had a good deal of rain. I never saw so much rain in the winter months as we have had this passed month.
     The surgeon (Dr Wright of the regular Army) just came in and vaccinated me and the rest of the brigade.[10] This is the 3rd time I have been vaccinated since I joined the Army.

Feb. 3rd, 1863
Jackson Hospital, Tennessee
Last night and this morning is the coldest we have had this winter, but as the sun approaches the meridian the cool air vanishes and we again remember the sunny south.
     One of our number died yesterday. The cold earth has hidden his remains from our view. Death is no respecter of persons and often takes from our circles the brightest stars.
     I am again permitted to leave my cot. O Wound, if I will again [tear] up the railroad track, I think I will be a little more careful next time, and not watch over such dangerous [sic], please.
One day in Jackson, Tennessee
WC Newlon

[72]

Feb. 5th, 1863
Jackson, Tennessee
This day four months today since the Battle of Mattemora [The Battle of Davis Bridge]. This is a very cold day, not so cold as disagreeable, snowing and raining. We are having our winter now.
I sent this A.M. to A. Morton, Maiden Lane, No 25, New York, $7.00 for gold pens.
The Surgeon of the 39th and Lt. Rawls of the same regiment came to see us today.[11]

Feb. 6th, 1863
General Hospital, Jackson
Last night was a pretty cold night for this sunny south. Oh leg, just cold all night!
     The morning, the sky is clear; the sun rests in his magnificence. The day proves to be calm, clear and pleasant.      Signed requisition for clothing lost in Battle of Mattemora.

A Good Sentimental Letter

Feb. 10th, 1863
Jackson Hospital, Tennessee
Yesterday was a beautiful day, but today, it is raining. Oh, such a country! Rain, rain and nothing but rain, so disagreeable.
     I had a good sentimental letter last night from Samuel Quinn,[12] Orderly Sergeant of “Co. G”, 3rd Iowa Infantry. He is a fine fellow and old comrade.
     He, like me, thinks the appearance of things of present is pretty [____].
     There is nothing of interest in this part of Rebeldom worthy of note.
     A great many deaths occur daily. All must go some time etc.
Will C. Newlon

[73]

Feb. 11th, 1863
Jackson Hospital, Tennessee
Yesterday was cold and rainy. Today is as warm and sultry as in August. No doubt but tomorrow will be cold and snowing.
     I wrote a letter to my old comrade Samuel Quinn, Orderly Sergeant of Company G, 3rd Iowa Infantry. He is a good fellow. And I wrote him as patriotic a letter as I could scare up. This P.M. I wrote a letter for “Edward Brown” of Company A, 39th Iowa.[13] He is very much down in spirits; I fear a little too much to insure a recovery. I wrote to his father to come and see him.

Untitled Poem

                Truce to thy fond misgivings,
                These fruitless tears give o’er,
                No absence can divide us, love,
                No parting part no more!
                Mountains and seas may rise between us,
                To mock our baffled will,
                But heart in heart, and soul in soul,
                We bide together still.

                Whenever I go, or far or near,
                I cannot be alone;
                Thy voice is ever in mine ear.
                Thy hand press’d in mine own;
                Thy head upon my bosom thrill.
                And heart in heart, soul in soul,
                We bide together still.

                And when stern death shall work his worst,
                And all our joys are done,
                E’en by the mystery that unites
                The dial and the sun;
                Though one exists in heavenly bliss,
                One in this world of ill.

(Conundrum)     Why are “Greenbacks” like the Iowa?[14]

                “Because, they are the issue of Abraham and                       know not that their Redeemer liveth.”
                                                    Wm C. Newlon
                                             February 12th, 1863


Feb 13th, 1863
Today is another fine warm day, such as always, makes everything look cheerful, but is always lonely to me. For such days always call to mind former associations and the happy hours spent in days of yore; such compared with my present condition, is anything but pleasant. Another one of our number was taken to another ward with the Smallpox; each day bringeth it changes.
     I was vaccinated in three different places today. I think it will take this time.
     Little birds are singing as though it was in the month of May; they appear to be happy while everything else is miserable.
     Oh! That our distracted country was restored to peace. Oh, That we all could enjoy the pleasure of home and the society of friends as in days gone by. Alas, we have not such privilege.
WCNewlon
Jackson, Tennessee


[74]

Feb. 15th, 1863
Jackson Hospital
This is another beautiful Sabbath day, one that would be rarely seen in the far south this time of year; however, this is not south, and north is not south.
The most pleasing thing I have heard for some time is a rumor that we (the One-Legged Brigade) are to be sent home in a very short time. I am afraid this is nothing more than a sensational rumor; how I wish it would be so.
     I wrote for Edward Brown to Lt. Rawls, 39th Iowa regarding the latter to come and see the former who is dangerously sick and wounded.
     No mail and no news of importance today.

Sabbath, Feb. 22nd, 1863
Jackson, Tennessee
This, the anniversary of the birthday of the father of our country,[15] the man who was first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of the people.
     Thirty-four (34) guns were fired in Honor of the birth of this great “warrior” and patriot, who is an American “Patriot”.
     This is a very cold and disagreeable day, but as it is almost Church Time, I will cease writing for the present. Regular worship has been established at this “Hospital”.


March 1st, 1863
Jackson, Tennessee
Spring has again come and bids fair for a few days of fine weather, how much we need it, for we have had such a miserably winter. Health good.
WCNewlon
Rummage Sale
[75]

March 10th, 1863
Jackson, Tennessee
Cold rainy day and I am still in the hospital and but little prospect of getting away. Wrote one letter to B. Frank Murray.
Will C. Newlon

Jackson, Tennessee
Sabbath, March 15th, 1863
     The same old routine each day. So much so, that I cannot find anything to write. I do wish that something of an exciting routine would turn up. And then the time would pass swiftly. I cannot understand why my papers do not come. They have been gone to Memphis three weeks and nothing has been heard of him since. Perhaps they are lost and perhaps not. It is hard to tell. Nos. 1 & 2 Hospital have been consolidated. At present there is but one General Hospital in Jackson. I wish there was none and then I would not be here.
     This is Sabbath Day. My friends are at church enjoying civilized society, while I am compelled to remain in this Hospital with but little prospect of getting away soon.
     The weather has been very favorable for the past few days. But today is cloudy and threatens rain soon, which is no uncommon thing in this country.
Will C. Newlon


March 18th, 1863
Jackson, Tennessee
Sale today of the effects of diseased soldiers at the different hospitals at this place. The articles sold very reasonable considering the place and time of year. Watches and pistols run high. Sale will continue all day tomorrow. Pleasant day.
WCNewlon

March 20th, 1863
     The sale is over. The weather has been very pleasant this month. Most too warm to be pleasant. Peach trees in bloom. Gardens are being made and all spring work is progressing.
     The Medical Inspector is here but cannot send us home, &c.    
Will C. Newlon

This Miserable Place
Monday, March 30th, 1863
Jackson Hospital, Tennessee
     I have been quite sick for a few days past. I hardly know what has been the matter with me. I hope to be all right in a few days, as I expect to go home soon and I want to be well.
     Quite a windstorm for three or four days past. Nothing to write.   
April 1st, 1863
Jackson Hospital, Tennessee
This is a beautiful April day. The sky is as clear as crystal. The Boys are full of mischief & playing tricks on one another. I am so tired of this place. I think I will leave it in a few days. My health is improving, &c.
Will C. Newlon

                                                            [77]

April 4th, 1863
Jackson Hospital, Tennessee
I do not know when I have felt so gloomy as today. One of my comrades left today for Ohio – his home. I cannot see how that his papers came without the rest. All went away together – None except his have been heard of since. The manner in which things are conducted in the Army is rather singular.
     I was glad to see him get away. And still I was sorry to part with him – He (Norris F. Jellison) lost a leg at the Battle of Iuka[16], was a member of the 11th Ohio Battalion. We all (the One-Legged Brigade) look forward with joy to the day when we will be released from this miserable place. If I have one desire above another it is that that day may be hastened. Oh, how long I have been in the “Hospital”. This, such a beautiful day so warm and calm. Oh, how I would like to be at home today, but alas I am far away.
     I am not well today; I have such a cold.
Will. C. Newlon
3rd Iowa

April 5th, 1863
Jackson Hospital, Tennessee
Another Sabbath day has come and I am still in this miserable place. I wrote two letters this A.M. This P.M., I attended divine service in the dining room by the Chaplin of the 50th Indiana Infantry. It is a rarity to me to hear a sermon in the Army.
     Fred Resa arrived this P.M. from the regiment with an order for me and my descriptive roll to be sent to Memphis.[17] My discharge papers are made out and ready for me at the company. Now Surgeon Davis refuses to give me my papers and let me go.
     I’ll get it yet...                              
Will C Newlon
3rd Iowa


                      Ballad
           Yes! Other eyes may brighteen, love,
                When gazing upon thine,
           As glorious brooks run glittering where
                The shedding sunbeams shine.
           Oh! Did I love thee less, be sure,
                Mine own would brighter be;
           Content thee, then, with smiles from them,
                And bear with tears from me.

           Yes! Other tones may soften, love,
                When to thy ear address’d,
           As breezes lulled the barque album[18]
                O’er ocean’s treacherous breast,
           Oh! Did I love thee less, be sure,
                My words would smoother be;
           Content thee, then, with praise from them,
                And bear with truth from me!

           Yes, other arms may bear thee, love,
                O’er fortunes’s flowery way;
           Thine with unwearied, fervent faith,
                Abide the darker day.
           Oh! Did I love thee less, be sure,
                My aid would prompted be!
           Content thee, then, with pleasing them,
                And keep thy love for me!
               



Uncle Sam’s Mule
                    By a played out warrior

           In a muddy ditch by a deepe morass,
           A Government mule lay breathing his last,
           With harness all geared, and waiting for death –
           The grim driver’s summons to pull his last breath.
           A right hearty chap he was when he enlisted;
           And took his scant rations of hay unassisted    
           Stood up to the rack like a patriot true,
           And his body, by welting, was red, white and blue!
           At evening, oft times, his day’s labor over,
           Would he pensively dream of his mule-age and clover;
           But his sweet tho’ts would grow sour and uncandid,
           When he gazed on his end and the U.S. there branded.
           “O! Abe, why did [you] allow the contractor
           To disfigure me thus like a base malfactor?
           You nail me for life – I don’t see it, t’ain’t fair –
           The compact was ‘three years, or during the war’.
           You’ve ‘throwed’ on me, Abe, I’m gone up the spout,
           I get nay furlough, and bounty’s played out;
           Promotions uncertain - I work for no pay;
           Ain’t this patriotic? Pray tell me I bray!”
          But now all his sighs and complainings are over,
           And the lash of the driver shall goad him no more;
           For he’s ‘passed in his checks’ has finished his work,
           Has pulled his last load of shingles and pork;
           There are none who will miss his elongated face,
           Annother is ready to pull in his place,
           And the train will move on, and the soldiers be fed.
           And no tears for the Government mule that is dead!

                           MORAL
           Ah! My bold sojer boy, tho’ thy hard bread is tough,
           Thy ‘sow-belly’ worse, and shoulder-straps rough,
           Take this sweet consolation, and don’t feel so cruel –
           For tho’ both are high-privates, you out-rank the                 mule.
                                                 3rd Iowa Inf.

Postscript

Winterset, Iowa
Aug. 12th, 1863
Dear Lydia,
     Youn [Dawn] of this morning is before me. Hope you will have a pleasant time in the country.
     Although I am on the St[reet] today, yet, I am far from being well. Exposing myself all night last Saturday night is the cause of my illness. I feel as though I would have a long spell of sickness. I am undergoing a course of medicine, which, I hope, will break up the foundation of any disease. However rapid my health may recover, I am sorry to say that “One Horse Major” will not be fit for harness for one month to come, if that soon. I lost $50.00 that night to “Clarinda Page”. And no mistake.
     Lydia, perhaps if my health is not too much impaired, we can have our ride, at any rate.
     I feel like going into the county; have been thinking about it for two or three days, but have no place that I care about going to. I think a little ride into the county would do me good.
     I know nothing about “Mr Wilson”, and, consequently, will say nothing.
     I have so much work to do and not able to do it. Can’t you help me? I know you would, if you could.
     I am, Lydia, Very Affectionately Yours,
                                                       Will

* * *



[1] Perhaps a veteran of one of the German revolutions of 1848.

[2] Iuka and Corinth campaigns: 19 Sept-4 Oct 1862.

[3] Lexington, Tennessee - twenty-five miles east of Jackson. Parker's Cross Roads, Tennessee, 13 December 1862 - As Brig. General Nathan Bedford Forrest's expedition into West Tennessee neared its conclusion, Union Brig. General Jeremiah C. Sullivan, with the brigades of Col. Cyrus L. Dunham and Col. John W. Fuller, attempted to cut Forrest off from withdrawing across the Tennessee River
Dunham's and Forrest's march routes, on 31 December 1862, brought them into contact at Parker's Cross Roads, ten miles south of Lexington. Skirmishing began about 9:00am, with Forrest taking an initial position along a wooded ridge northwest of Dunham at the intersection. Confederate artillery gained an early advantage. Dunham pulled his brigade back a half mile and redeployed, facing north. 
His Federals repelled frontal feints until attacked on both flanks and rear by Forrest's mounted and dismounted troops. During a lull, Forrest sent Dunham a demand for an unconditional surrender. Dunham refused and was preparing for Forrest's next onset when Fuller's Union brigade arrived from the north and surprised the Confederates with an attack on their rear; Confederate security detachments had failed to warn of Fuller's approach. "Charge 'em both ways," ordered Forrest.
The Confederates briefly reversed front, repelled Fuller, then rushed past Dunham's demoralized force and withdrew south to Lexington and then across the Tennessee River. Both sides claimed victory, but the Confederate claims appear to have more credence. Result(s): Confederate victory location: Henderson County Campaign: Forrest's Expedition into West Tennessee (1862-63) Date(s): 31 December 1862
Principal Commanders: Brig. General Jeremiah C. Sullivan [US]; Brig. General Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS] Forces Engaged: Two brigades (approx. 3,000 men) [US]; expeditionary brigade [CS]
Estimated Casualties: 737 (US 237; CS 500). http://www.americancivilwar.com/statepic/tn/tn011.html
[4] Esquire is used as a title of courtesy usually placed in its abbreviated form after the surname. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Ed (2003), s. v. “esquire”.

[5] Commanded by Col. Henry J. B. Cummings, Winterset, Iowa, in “January, 1863, the 39th Infantry Regiment moved to Corinth and was there assigned to the Third Brigade in the division commanded by General G. M. Dodge of Iowa. Headquarters were in Corinth for nearly a year, with an occasional march into the adjacent country. The regiment was with Colonel Abel D. Streight in his raid into Alabama, returning to Corinth.” Available at:

[6] Perhaps George N. Elliot, 39th Infantry Regiment, Winterset, Iowa. “Iowa in the Civil War, Regiment Data, 39th Regiment Iowa Volunteer Infantry, A-G”, IAGenWeb Project©1996-2006, http://iagenweb.org/civilwar/regiment/infantry/39th/39th_a-g.htm

[7] Isaac W. Jones, 23, residence Indianola, né Iowa, enlisted 21 May 1861, as First Corporal, mustered 8 June 1861, taken prisoner 6 April 1862, Shiloh, Tenn, returned to Company, mustered out 8 June 1864, Davenport, Iowa, expiration of term of service. No record of Eden Bandel found. http://iagenweb.org/civilwar/regiment/infantry/03rd/co-af.htm

[8] Perhaps Will is referring here to the Prussian soldier on his hospital ward. See journal page 64.

[9] Confounded: damned. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Ed (2003), s. v. “confounded”.

[10] “Smallpox vaccination was known long before 1861, but the failure to make immunization a standard part of induction procedure was overlooked, and that oversight led to many needless cases of this disease.”, Harold Elk Straubing, In Hospital and Camp. (Harrisburg, PA, Stackpole Books, 1993), 3.

[11]  The surgeon may have been Peter N. Woods, age 33, residence Fairfield, Iowa, né Ohio, appointed Surgeon 5 Sept 1862, mustered 24 Nov 1862, mustered out 5 June 1865, Washington, DC; Jonathan B. Rawls, age 38, residence Winterset, Iowa, né Ohio, appointed Second Lieutenant 8 Aug 1862, mustered 24 Nov 1862, wounded 31 Dec 1862 at Parker's Cross Roads, Tenn, resigned 2 April 1864. “Iowa in the Civil War, Regiment Data, 39th Regiment Iowa Volunteer Infantry, A-G”, IAGenWeb Project©1996-2006, http://iagenweb.org/civilwar/regiment/infantry/39th/39th_a-g.htm
[12] Samuel W. Quinn, age 26, residence Indianola, Iowa, né Indiana, enlisted 2 May 1861, mustered 8 June 1861, mustered out 18 June 1864, Davenport, Iowa, expiration of term of service. http://iagenweb.org/civilwar/regiment/infantry/03rd/co-af.htm

[13] Edward Brown, age 18, residence Winterset, Iowa, né Indiana, enlisted 14 Aug 1862, mustered 8 Sept 1862, wounded severely 31 Dec 1862 at Parker's Cross Roads, Tenn, died of wounds 27 Feb 1863, Jackson, Tenn. Volunteer Infantry, A-G”, IAGenWeb Project©1996-2006, http://iagenweb.org/civilwar/regiment/infantry/39th/39th_a-g.htm

[14] Greenback (1862): a legal-tender note issued by the U.S. government. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Ed (2003), s. v. “greenback”.

[15] George Washington, 22 Feb 1732–14 Dec 1799
[16] Battle of Iuka: 19 September 1862. Norris F. Jellison, né York County ME 1 May 1837, died 16 May 1915, enlisted 27 October 1861, discharged 3 May 1863. Available at www.webbdeiss.org/webb/11ohioart.html,www.rootsweb.com/~iabiog/linn/hl1878/hl1878-j.htm and www.rootsweb.com/~ialinn/wpa/je.htm.

[17]  Frederick Resa, age 28, residence Guttenburg, Iowa,  né Germany, enlisted 22 May 1861, mustered 8 June 1861, wounded 6 Oct. 6 1862 at Hatchie River, leg amputated, discharged for disability 7 April 1863, Jackson, Tenn, Roster and Record of Iowa Troops In the Rebellion, Vol. 1, Guy E. Logan, http://iagenweb.org/civilwar/books/logan/mil304.htm

[18] Perhaps white boat